Growers play the mating game to concoct new tobacco strains.
From the Print Edition:
Cuban Models, May/June 03
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It sounds like a freakish, high-tech affair, but hybridization dates back to the nineteenth century. The father of this process is an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel, who cross-pollinated pea plants in the 1850s and 1860s and published a paper on the results in 1866. Today he's known as the godfather of genetics.
Not every farmer makes hybrids. "It's a very lengthy process," says Perez. "That's why people don't do it. It's not cost-effective." Christian Eiroa, of Tabacos Ranchos Jamastran S.A. in Honduras, makers of Camacho, doesn't use cross-pollination, but does select plants that have the characteristics he and his father, Julio, prize. "We do not create our own hybrids, but we do develop the seed to the characteristics that we like," he says. "In essence, we allow the seed to evolve by herself. Once in a while we come up with a freak of nature. The most recent is named Tabacon. This is a 14-foot-plus plant that came from a Habana 2000 crop." The Eiroas may try to get the giant listed in the Guinness Book of World Records.
Others don't wish to discuss the process at all. "I don't want to get into what type of seed we use," says Jorge Padrón, president of Padrón Cigars Inc., which grows Cuban-seed tobacco in Nicaragua. "It's proprietary."
Crossing plants is just the start of a process of creating a hybrid -- from start to finish, the commitment is typically more than seven years. If you were making, say, a hybrid of Cuban seed and Connecticut seed, you would pollinate the plants, then take some 20 seeds from the mother plant, planting them in the ground. Of those 20, approximately half would look like the mother and the rest would look like the father; a common split would be 12 and 8. You'd select the one type you prefer, let those plants self-pollinate with the others with the same characteristics, and repeat the process, each time weeding out plants that don't look right. At the end of seven to ten growing seasons (which is typically seven to ten years), the plant's characteristics will be fixed, so that seeds from the plant will grow tobacco plants that are identical, more or less. (Wary of someone undermining his company's hard work by stealing a flower from the fields, Perez only grows male, sterile plants, which can't be used to replicate his work.)
|David Perez, president of ASP.|
Today, these hybrids and others, such as Habana 92, cover a host of cigars, from Cuba's myriad brands to an assortment of non-Cubans. The C.A.O. Criollo is named for its wrapper hybrid, as are a variety of Altadis S.A. brands, such as the Henry Clay Habana2000, which is wrapped in the most popular Cuban hybrid, Habana 2000.
In a January 2000 editorial, Cigar Aficionado European Editor James Suckling revealed the history behind the Habana 2000 tobacco, a cross between El Corojo and a mild Cuban cigarette tobacco called Bell 61-10. Like many hybrids, Habana 2000 was crossed more than once. The first hybrid, created in the 1980s, was called Habana 2.1.1. This was crossed a second time with Corojo -- so that the Corojo would dominate, rather than the cigarette tobacco -- creating Habana 2000. Cuba has cultivated the seed since 1992.
Like most seeds, Habana 2000 quickly found its way outside of Cuba and into the fields of Central America and elsewhere. (It was originally and incorrectly reported that the non-Cuban Habana 2000 was a cross between Connecticut shade and Cuban tobacco.) Nestor Plasencia, a Cuban émigré who grows tobacco and makes cigars in Honduras and Nicaragua, planted the first crop of Habana 2000 in Nicaragua in 1996.
"I was surprised at how it looked, and I was surprised at its resistance to blue mold," Plasencia said in a 1999 interview in Cigar Insider, a sister publication of Cigar Aficionado. For Plasencia, the seed was a godsend. He went from losing entire crops to blue mold to losing 1 percent. "I would lose $10 million worth of tobacco in the barns to blue mold. I would have a very good crop in the afternoon, drive to Danlí [Honduras], and very early in the morning I'd go back to the farm and there was nothing."
Like the Cubans before him, Plasencia initially had trouble working the wrapper. The thick leaf needed more fermentation than traditional Cuban-seed tobacco, and early Habana 2000 cigars suffered from rough burns. As growers learned more about the hybrid, they learned how to better handle it in the barns and warehouses, improving its performance. Today, the Nicaraguan version of Habana 2000 can be found on the aforementioned Henry Clay as well as Santa Damiana. A Mexican variety is the pièce de résistance on the new Montecristo Platinum.
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